Next came custodians of the hospitals and other religious foundations established by the urban government, guild masters, and heads of confraternities, all bringing their insignia. Again, these elections did not bring changes to the governmental institution of Lviv, since the only elected oficials appear to have been the three burgomasters and the advocatus, chosen from the same group of people every year. At the time, not many towns in the historical regions of present day Ukraine offered circumstances favourable to the development of urban elites as mentioned above, Lviv was an exceptional case. Multistorey residence developed vertically tower. None of these considerations, however, can be applied in the region and period under discussion in the absence of sources.

feciorii bihorului

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Labor percepta virtute parit. Olga Kozubska-Andrusiv 39 government could be changed at least partially every year.

Dunăre, Nicolae [WorldCat Identities]

Pagratis Entrepreneurship and Social and Political Power in the Ionian Islands from the late sixteenth century to the irst decades of the seventeenth: V, Buenos Aires, biihorului, p.

Coming from other regions where they most likely already had established positions, the Scholz and Kampian joined the local upper stratum through marriage. Finally, we will show how the few sites containing multiple residences do not contradict our conclusions but support them. The introduction is full of patriotic eloquence e. Ebrei nella Terraferma veneta del Quattrocento. Basically, this act transferred legislative power from the king to the Polish Diet, the Sejm.

We know for a fact that immigrants to the Principalities included representatives of the elites; at the feciofii least, there is clear evidence ceciorii Germans and Romanians.

Inafter the death of the council scribe whom he assisted, Zimorowicz took over the chancellery. Privilege in itself presupposed that members of the elite held a special position relative to the law and to the ruler, being often exempt from tax and other obligations under a particular law or its provisions.


Opalinski also explained that he had in mind to protect noble privileges, not to diminish them or share them with the patriciate. The advocatus and college of judges Collegium Scabinorum were the irst to enter, laying the seal and court records before the starosta and council.

feciorii bihorului

Arte Plastice, 4, nos 3—4pp. However, practically no families who belonged to bihoruliu local upper stratum in the fourteenth and ifteenth centuries survived into the sixteenth: Another prominent and bihoruului means of self-representation for every urban government was the building of the town hall, and Lviv was no exception.

The Venetian calculus further reveals that the Jews in Moldavia were a non-negligible inancial and perhaps demographic quantity. Guilds had to elect their masters and send them to the town hall the next day to take an oath before the council.

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See Zimorowicz, Leopolis triplex, p. In the early s, a well-trained Jewish scholar and administrator from Venetian Crete, Elijah Capsali c. This class includes large buildings divided into multiple residential spaces, built on double or multiple tracts of land. Apart from a building on the market square, a whole street Temryczowska in the town belonged to him, as well as a landed estate near the town.

On Morosini and the impact of his actions: Olga Kozubska-Andrusiv looks at the urban elite in Lviv, an important commercial centre in late medieval Poland.

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References to councillors with academic degrees date from the sixteenth century: Materialy do biograii, genealogii i heraldyki polskiej, vol. Apparently, growing social exclusivity was associated with the gradual elimination of the craft guilds from political and social pre-eminence — a process observed in other European cities at the time. This paper sets out to argue that all Romanian social elites preferred one type of residential building from the fourteenth to the sixteenth centuries, to identify its origins, and inally to explain the causes of its prevalence in elite circles.


Ricerche sulla Terraferma veneta nel Quattrocento, Verona,pp. Crises et Renouvellements, eds F.

Dunăre, Nicolae

Although it lost its privileged position as capital of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth to Warsaw in the late sixteenth feciroii, even in the following century Cracow remained a city with a prosperous and inluential merchant bihoruui, multi-ethnic and multi-confessional, involved in the proitable middle- and long-distance trade.

The day before, a councillor or the scribe of the council personally invited the starosta as royal representative to honour the event with his presence; similar invitations also went to the Catholic clergy of the cathedral, who were to celebrate a solemn mass.

feciorii bihorului

Studii critice, Bucharest,pp. Drevneyshie gosudarstva na territorii SSSR. Alexandr Osipian 67 a Sejm law forbade noblemen to engage in trade or commerce, with the penalty of the loss of noble status.

feciorii bihorului

Neither needed prior preparation, and master masons were only brought in from Transylvania for more important stone buildings.